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J. DiPaolo. Exp. Hambidge, and T.F Chai. 3:577-584. Selenium inhibits UV-light-induced skin carcinogenesis in hairless mice. Cancer 6:3-21. Brewer, E.B. Ohshima, M., and J.M. Se concentrations in serum and angiographically defined coronary artery disease are uncorrelated. 14:224-232. Trace elements. 1979. Cancer Inst. Oncol. Creasia. The relationship between blood lead levels and blood pressure and its cardiovascular risk implications. 1982. Dis. Assessment of the Zinc Nutritional Status of the U.S. Population Based on Data Collected in the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1976-1980. Nurr. Schroeder, H.A., J.J. Balassa, and W.H. Flannery. 1982. Caries Res. 1983. Borel, J.S., T.C. Assessment of lead health hazards in a body shop of an automobile assembly plant. trace element in British English. Hepatic angiosarcoma associated with short-term arsenic ingestion. Quantitative studies on in vitro morphological transformation of Syrian hamster cells by inorganic metal salts. Nutr. Intern. Golden, P.S.E.G. 300:689-695. Physiological and metabolic characterization of a cardiomyopathy induced by chronic copper deficiency. Wilson, RF. Goitre and iodine deficiency in Europe. Luckey. Hanbury. Anticancer Res. Prasad, A.S., G.J. Lloyd, T.J. Mason, E. Mastromatteo, T. Norseth, G. Pershagen, U. Saffiotti, and R. Saracci. Public Health 73:92-94. Res. 1. 1986. Enhancement of ultraviolet light-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli WP2. Community Health 33:253-256. 18:36-42. Chan, eds. Inorganic fluorides used in drinking-water and dental preparations. Logue, J.N., M.D. Q. J. Med. J. Epidemiol. Electron microscopic study on the cardiac hypertrophy induced by iron deficiency anaemia in the rat. MacDonald, D.R. Exp. Clin. Cancer 51:110-115. Fabris, C., R. Farini, G. Del Favero, G. Gurrieri, A. Piccoli, G.C. Plenum Press, New York. Shani, J., Z. Ahronson, F.G. Sulman, W. Mertz, G. Frenkel, and P.F. 23:285-287. Environ. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). Piscator. Heavy metal exposure from foods. Environ. Cytological effects of sodium fluoride on mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of mice. Koller, LD., N.I. Proteolytic activity in brains of rabbits treated with aluminum. The tracks are formatted in WebVTT format (.vtt files) — Web Video Text Tracks. Doniach, I. Rossman, T.G. 185-223 in W. Mertz, ed. Adv. 1975. Bioinorg. Strain. Trace elements are any elements which are found in "trace" (very small) quantities in something. 33: 2294-2298. Stalvey, eds. 1980. 23:87-109. Consumer Nutrition Division, Human Nutrition Information Service, Hyattsville, Md. The Work of WHO 1986-1987. 1982. DiPaolo. J. 3-22 in S.S. Brown, ed. Cytotoxic and clastogenic effects of soluble and insoluble compounds containing hexavalent and trivalent chromium. Selected minerals in foods surveys, 1974 to 1981/82. 1981. 82-2245. 1985. Rose, ed. Acad. Ann. Trace Element Res. Weswig. Measurements of plasma zinc. 211-259 in K.R. J. 42:242-253. Nutr. Clinical Chemistry and Chemical Toxicology of Metals. Iodine and mammary cancer. Your body needs minerals, inorganic compounds commonly called elements, to support essential functions like nerve transmission, muscle contraction and hormone production… Wiley, New York. 32:1477-1485. 1975. 35:3308-3316. Altered metabolism and function of rat heart following chronic low level cadmium/lead feeding. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk, Part I: Introduction, Definitions, and Methodology, 2 Methodological Considerations in Evaluating the Evidence, 3 Dietary Intake and Nutritional Status: Trends and Assessment, Extent and Distribution of Chronic Disease: An Overview, Part II: Evidence on Dietary Components and Chronic Diseases, 6 Calories: Total Macronutrient Intake, Energy Expenditure, and Net Energy Stores, 17 Coffee, Tea, and Other Nonnutritive Dietary Components, Part III: Impact of Dietary Patterns on Chronic Diseases, 19 Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases, Part IV: Overall Assessment, Conclusions, and Recommendations, 27 Overall Assessment and Major Conclusions, Recommendations on Diet, Chronic Diseases, and Health. Metabolism 32:894-899. Nutr. Assoc. Canfield, W.K., K.M. Effect of inorganic chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin response, and serum lipids in noninsulin-dependent diabetics. Calhoun, L.A. Saryan, and D.H. Petering. Mutagenic activities of metal compounds in bacteria. 1979. Chen, Z.M. J. Res. 1983. Huang, S.J. Environ. Caries-preventive effects of fluoride tablets in schoolchildren four years after discontinuation of treatments. Wedrychowski, A., W.S. Ohno, H., F. Hanaoka, and M.A. J. Chemical Toxicity of Metals and Metalloids. J. Natl. 13:50-57. Osteoporosis: calcium, fluoride, and aluminum interactions. Hegsted, C.D. Jenkins, G.N. 1977. 115:1196-1202. Biochem. 355-381 in L. Friberg, G.F. Nordberg, and V.B. Association of cadmium with renal cancer. Kjellström, T., L. Friberg, and B. Rahnster. 1976. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, Mo. Inhibitory effects of selenium on the mutagenicity of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) and AAF derivatives. Tumour induction by carcinogens in iron deficient rats. Med. Manganese in the diet of healthy preschool and school children. Other trace elements. 421 pp. Smith, and H.F. DeLuca. Gileva, E.A., E.G. Cancer Inst. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. Pories, M.C. Milmore, and S.C. Marcus. 1983. DiPaolo, J.A., and B.C. Tsuchiya, K. 1977. Biochemical function of selenium and its relation to vitamin E. Fed. Health Perspect. Diet and prostatic cancer: a case-control study in Hawaii. 1936. Dietary intake of manganese by New Zealand infants during the first six months of life. Biol. Benuck, M., K. Iqbal, H.M. Wisniewski, and A. Lajtha. Purification and quantitation of a rat plasma selenoprotein distinct from glutathione perioxidase using monoclonal antibodies. Chem. Cancer Inst. 1975. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? Clin. Lancet 2:1348-1351. 40:58-66. Uusitupa, M.I.J., J.T. 1984. Batuman, V., E. Landy, J.K. Maesaka, and R.P. Victery, W., A.J. Masironi, R., ed. 9:73-87. 1983. An in-vivo study of renal cadmium and hypertension. Hansen, M.P. Salonen, J.T., R. Salonen, I. Penttilä, J. Herranen, M. Jauhiainen, M. Kantola, R. Lappeteläinen, P.H. 53:51-55. 1986. Chem. Cancer Inst. Pediatric exposures to lead, arsenic, cadmium, and methyl mercury. 1978. The effects of a cocarcinogen, ferric oxide, on the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene in the isolated perfused lung. Jeejeebhoy, K.N., R.C. Selenium content of tissues in Finnish infants and adults with various diseases, and studies on the effects of selenium supplementation in neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis patients. 1976. Bawden. suited to this type of application where trace amounts of an element must be detected in the presence of matrix elements. Kawamura, J., O. Yoshida, K. Nishino, and Y. Itokawa. 5:261-270. Rogot, E., A.R. Environ. 1986. Talwar, S.J., S. Qadry, K.K. Specific response of mesenchymal tissue to cancerigenesis by cadmium. Diet. Effects of Sewage Sludge on the Cadmium and Zinc Content of Crops. Clin. Fluorides and Dental Caries, 2nd ed: Contemporary Concepts for Practitioners and Students. Mutagen 2:371-379. 1982. Pi-Sunyer. Combs, G.F., Jr., and L.C. Mutat. Part VI. 76:605-610. Shigematsu, I., M. Minowa, T. Yoshida, and K. Miyamoto. 1983. Toxicol. Gazdy, E, H. Csernyanszky, and T. Szilagyi. Selenium and age-adjusted human cancer mortality. Clark, L.C. 1969. Darby, A.C. Kolbye, Jr., and R.M. Blotcky. J. 1954. Proposed drinking water regulations. 6:203-231. Klevay, LM. Wilkins, J.R., III, and T.H. Meigs, and J.T. IV. Adamska-Dyniewska, H., T. Bala, H. Florczak, and B. Trojanowska. Am. Interactions of copper and zinc in cardiovascular disease. Major, and C.Y. Aluminum and Alzheimer's disease. Guthrie, J. Residue Rev. Henrikson, P.A., L. Lutwak, L. Krook, R. Skogerboe, F. Kallfelz, L.F. Bélanger, J.R. Marier, B.E. Newman, J.A., V.E. 1981. 1977. Thomas, Springfield, Ill. 181 pp. Lipsky. 55-69 in Kharasch, ed. Nielsen, F.H., and W. Mertz. Selenium in human hair in relation to age, diet, pathological condition and serum levels. 2: 319-322. 31:745-759. Mineral content of foods and total diets: the Selected Minerals in Foods Survey, 1982 to 1984. The geographical distribution of high cadmium concentrations in the environment and prostate cancer in Alberta. 1983. Cooper and Indian childhood cirrhosis. Meyer, B.R., A. Fischbein, K. Rosenman, Y. Lerman, D.E. Less than 1000 ppm is often considered trace though sometimes the Minor elements are defined as those above 100 ppm. Med. 1974. 44:938-941. Chromium intake and urinary chromium excretion of trauma patients. Lorentzon, R., and S.E. 6:91-98. Majerus, M.M. Micronutrient interactions: vitamins, minerals, and hazardous elements. Cancer 40:523-533. Adhesion of leukocytes to endothelium: roles of divalent cations, surface charge, chemotactic agents and substrate. Raven Press, New York. 50:65-85. Rivedal, E., and T. Sanner. Soc. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. Chisolm, J.J., Jr. 1985. Pendergrast, W.J., B.K. Trends in urban mortality in relation to fluoridation status. A review of current concepts. Res. Punsar, S., and M.J. Karvonen. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by dietary zinc. J. Ind. During the last decades there has been a great deal of scientific investigation about the function and binding of trace elements. Assoc. Friberg, L., T. Kjellström, G. Nordberg, and G.M. Correlations between carcinogenic trace metals in water supplies and cancer mortality. Cancer 37:2523-2532. Sci. Metab. 82 pp. 1985. 1979. King, Jr., ed. 1971. Bioavailability of CD to food crops in relation to heavy metal content to sludge-amended soil. 49:337-341. Med. Riggs, B.L, E. Seeman, S.F. Mortality among a cohort of U.S. cadmium production workers—an update. Med. Fluoride 10:102-125. Environ. 57:757-768. 2. 1976. Liu, M.D. Altered arachidonic acid metabolism in platelets and aortas from selenium-deficient rats. Dent. 1982. J. Occup. J. Price. Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals. Am. 1987. The trace elements (microminerals or trace minerals), required in much smaller amounts of about 15 milligrams per day or less, include iron, zinc, copper, manganese, iodine (iodide), selenium, fluoride, molybdenum, chromium, and… 70:761-765. 1973. 114:1266-1279. Marliss, G.R. Fraumeni, Jr. 1976. Rev. 379-404 in A.S. Prasad, ed. Enhancement of viral transformation for evaluation of the carcinogenic or mutagenic potential of inorganic metal salts. Grant. 41:31-34. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. 332 pp. 1983. Effects and dose-response relationships of skin cancer and blackfoot disease with arsenic. Löser, E. 1980. With the age its concentration is diminishing and the lack of chromium can come to provoke some diseases like diabetes. Some Aromatic Amines, Anthraquinones and Nitroso Compounds, and Inorganic Fluorides Used in Drinking-Water and Dental Preparations. Ph.D. thesis, University of Copenhagen. Johansen, J.P. McGowan, and S.H. J. Chem. Abumrad, N.N., A.J. 29:80-82. Weswig, eds. Berlin, M. 1979. 3. Clark, L.C., and G.F. Combs, Jr. 1986. Gibbs, G.W. J. Copper metabolism in normal subjects. Krebs. 12:63-69. DNA  damage and its degradation by metal compounds. Bomford, A., and R. Williams. 121:246-258. A few examples: lanthanum, cerium, gadolinium, holmium (rare earths) of the approximately 80 trace elements. Dunn, G. Jacob, and M.B. Chromium deficiency, glu-. Pershagen, G. 1981. Shimkin, M.C. Dissolution of trace and matrix elements during chemical treatment was studied using an ultramafic reference sample of dunite, DTS-1. 1980. Paradellis. 43:325-331. Cooper, W.C. 1984: The health implications of increased manganese in the environment resulting from the combustion of fuel additives: a review of the literature. Blumberg. Technical Report Series No. Effects of dietary cadmium  and zinc on rats maintained on diets low in copper. Lo, L.W., J. Koropatnick, and H.F. Stich. Nutr. Municipal drinking water and cardiovascular death rates. Immune System  The effects of certain trace elements, such as zinc and copper, on the immune system should be studied in order to offer plausible mechanisms for their associations with chronic diseases in humans. Hyg. 203:379-383. Effect of dietary selenium deficiency on incidence and size of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumors in rats. I. Inhibitory effect of selenium on carcinogenesis. Med. Peeler, C.M. Li, and O. Midorikawa. Voroshilin, S.I., E.G. Temperature and pH effects on the release of chromium from stainless steel into water and fruit juices. Canfield, and J.J. Canary. 44:2573-2578. Selenium levels in human blood and tissues in health and disease. Nutr. Strain, W.H., E.G. Brain manganese concentrations in human aging and Alzheimer's disease. 262:13372-13375. Büttner, W. 1963. Wiss. Med. Kitano, S. 1980. J. Clin. Pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity in developing rats: effect of manganese deficiency. Effects of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men. Majone, F., A. Montaldi, F. Ronchese, A. DeRossi, L. Chieco-Bianchi, and A.G. Levis. Thomson, H.M. Rea, and A.M. van Rij. J. Polansky, P.B. 1971. A trace element is a chemical element whose concentration (or other measure of amount) is very low (a "trace amount"). 1976. a. Arsenic. 1971. 103:878-881. Effect of lead intoxication on rabbit plasma lipoproteins. Elinder, C.G. 355:1-372. Horton. Flouride-binding by the organic matrix of developing bovine enamel. Bryden, E.E. Environmental Health Service Division, Bureau of State Services, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta. Morley. Elinder, T. Kjellström, and G.F. Nordberg, eds. Biol. Mäenpää, G. Alfthan, and P. Puska. Levin, and M.B. Selenium compounds and the prevention of cancer: research needs and public health implications. Shaw, J.H., ed. 1943. Cancer Detect. Metal-induced infidelity of DNA synthesis. 83. Oncol. Pathol. Publ. Zinc and magnesium in human prostate gland: normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic. 5-year followup study of children with low-to-moderate lead absorption: electrophysiological evaluation. Res. 1979. Beaman, C.L  Corlett, and B.L. Nutr. Nutr. 1977. Proper collection of the hair sample is extremely important and cannot be over-emphasized. 290:417-420. Int. Scand. n. 1. Further studies in tissue changes associated with sodium selenate. 206:465-472. 1984. 37:261. Pandit, A.N., and S.A. Bhave. Selevan, S.G., P.J. Doshisha Univ. Tu. 1984. 5:345-361. Experimental induction of tumours of the thyroid by radiation. Iron dextran complex (group 3). Antioxidants and cancer. Br. 102:88-95. 1981. J. 100:59-68. 64:373-387. Chem. Perry, H.M., Jr., E.F. Perry, and M.W. Willis. SAMPLE GRAPH. Ann. Reg. Pp. Lancet 2: 1162. Pharmacol. 28:115-121. 98 pp. Assoc. 1983. Qian, L.Z. J. Med. Environ. Res. Nutr. Keen, and L.S. J. Margalioth, E.J., J.G. Cancer 4:223-233. Pahren, and J.B. Lucas. 1976. J. Nutr. Upsala J. Med. Taylor, K. Schneider, and C.G. Proc. 1982. 28:251-302. Shigematsu, I. Schmidt, and LS. Drinking water composition and blood pressure: a review of the epidemiology. Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and the Contaminants Mercury, Lead, and Cadmium. 18:31-40. Science 194:1434-1436. Mechanisms of selenium inhibition of tumorigenesis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. Klevay, L.M., and K.E. 151-165 in W.H. Cancer Inst. Platelet and vascular arachidonic acid metabolites: can they help detect a tendency towards thrombosis? Boutwell, R.K. 1963. Heyman, A., W.E. Darby, A.C. Kolbye, Jr., and RM. Crit. Fields, M. 1985. Tieremahr. Biol. Mahaffey, K.R., P.E. Cancer Res. 1983. 67:1041-1046. Examples are: 1) Siderophile elements: elements that concentrate in metallic iron such as Ni, Co, Os, Ir. WHO Offset Publ. McConnell, K.P., W.L. Kastin. 1968. View our suggested citation for this chapter. Rubenstein, A.H., N.W. 1979. Environ. Dev. Ann. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam. Andersen, O. Raised lead levels and impaired cognitive/ behavioral functioning: a review of the evidence. 55:195-196. 1984. McNair, P., S. Kiilerich, C. Christiansen, M.S. 8:55-61. Mutagen 3:597-606. 1966. 1983. 94:280-285. 42:1-36. Ciba Found. Tissue zinc status of genetically diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Atherosclerosis 29:81-93. Harris, and G.E. Plenum Press, New York. Med. Haematol. Chemical, Industrial Processes and Industries Associated with Cancer in Humans. 20:893-899. 39:1008-1013. Wester. Chromosomal aberrations in workers exposed to arsenic. Effect of iron deficiency on transplantable murine plasmacytoma. 1980. Statist. Christofferson, M. Massler, and M.B. Cancer Inst. b. Nikiforova. Johnson. Huff, and P. Györkey. Kopp, S.J., T. Glonek, M. Erlanger, E.F. Perry, M. Barany, and H.M. Perry, Jr. 1980. The role of chromium in mammalian nutrition. Cancer 38:452-455. 1967. Neurotoxicology 5:49-57. 3 pp. Vitamin D metabolism in adult rats at low and normal calcium intake and the effect of cadmium exposure. J. Hambidge, and LK. Levy, LS., and S. Venitt. Folsom, A.R., and R.J. Prineas. 17:12. Takenaka, S., H. Oldiges, H. Koenig, D. Hochrainer, and G. Oberdoerster. Obshch. Health 7:302-309. J. Luo, X.M., H.J. Hooper, P.L, L. Visconti, P.J. Dean, H.T. Whanger, P.D. Chem. Jovin. Effects of selenium on cell proliferation in rat liver and mammalian cells as indicated by cytokinetic and biochemical analysis. Health 7:668-674. Waterhouse. Br. J. Epidemiol. Poirier, LA., K.S. 1981. 39 pp. 26:817-821. 607-618 in R.E. 1986. Kunkel, and L.A. Loeb. 5. Inhibition of tumor growth by zinc depletion in rats. Appl. Venugopal, B., and T.D. Carcinogenesis 5:1109-1113. Role of cobalt, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, platinum, selenium, and titanium in carcinogenesis. Hurley, L.S. Hereditas 88:47-50. No. Scand. Cancer 10:470-487. 287:517-519. J. Ind. Health Perspect. The alleged association between artificial fluoridation of water supplies and cancer: a review. 44:2584-2589. 31:185-189. Mahaffey, ed. Clinical, Biochemical, and Nutritional Aspects of Trace Elements: Current Topics in Nutrition and Disease, Vol. Crenshaw, M.A., A. Wennberg, and J.W. 1981. Cent. Casto. Shy. Zinc. Tipton. Bogden, J.D., H.R. 1984. Science 222: 906-907. Wu. JG-1, JR-2, JGb-1 and JA-2, prepared and distributed by the Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ). Nutrition Reviews' Present Knowledge in Nutrition. J. Clin. 1985. Clin. Table 3. Wilkinson, J.A. Presented at American Chemical Society, 172nd  National  Meeting,  San  Francisco,  August 29-September. 180:295-299. 15. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. Yule, W., and M. Rutter. Learn more. Effect of a zinc-deficient diet on the growth of an IgM-secreting plasmacytoma (TEPC-183). Br. 57:130-138. Shearman, R.M. Sci. 3:230-236. 317 pp. Stalvey, eds. 28:5-16. Proc. Cancer 37:1384-1388. 1984. Ann. Aro, A., G. Alfthan, S. Soimakallio, and E. Voutilainen. Tipton. J. 55:525-528. WHO (World Health Organization). animal tumors by dietary zinc deficiency. Effect of selenium and other antioxidants on the mutagenicity of malonaldehye. Med. 34:2551-2559. J. Clin. 1982b. The effect of zinc ions (Zn+) on the procoagulent activity of PMN leukocytes. 1980.

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